|Dimensions (mm)||10 x 8 x 4.5mm|
|Weight (carats)||10 carats|
Beryl (/ˈbɛrəl/ BERR-əl) is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2Si6O18. Well-known varieties of beryl include emerald and aquamarine. Naturally occurring, hexagonal crystals of beryl can be up to several meters in size, but terminated crystals are relatively rare. Pure beryl is colorless, but it is frequently tinted by impurities; possible colors are green, blue, yellow, red (the rarest), and white. Beryl is also an ore source of beryllium.
Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, "sea water")
is a blue or cyan variety of beryl. It occurs at most localities which yield
ordinary beryl. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine.
Green-yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called
chrysolite aquamarine. The deep blue version of aquamarine is called maxixe.
Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Its color fades to white
when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment, though the color
returns with irradiation.
The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe2+. Fe3+ ions produce golden-yellow color, and when both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present, the color is a darker blue as in maxixe. Decoloration of maxixe by light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer between Fe3+ and Fe2+. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green, pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma rays, neutrons or even X-rays).
In the United States, aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. In Wyoming, aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains, near Powder River Pass. Another location within the United States is the Sawtooth Range near Stanley, Idaho, although the minerals are within a wilderness area which prevents collecting. In Brazil, there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Bahia, and minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The mines of Colombia, Zambia, Madagascar, Malawi, Tanzania and Kenya also produce aquamarine.
The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910. It weighed over 110 kg (243 lb), and its dimensions were 48.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (16 1⁄2 in) in diameter.(p110) The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.
The ancient Romans believed that aquamarine would protect against any dangers while travelling at sea, and that it provided energy and cured laziness.
Beryl belongs to the hexagonal crystal system. Normally Beryl forms hexagonal columns but can also occur in massive habits. As a cyclosilicate beryl incorporates rings of silicate tetrahedra of Si6O18 that are arranged in columns along the C axis and as parallel layers perpendicular to the C axis, forming channels along the C axis. These channels permit a variety of ions, neutral atoms, and molecules to be incorporated into the crystal thus disrupting the overall charge of the crystal permitting further substitutions in Aluminium, Silicon, and Beryllium sites in the crystal structure. These impurities give rise to the variety of colors of beryl that can be found. Increasing alkali content within the silicate ring channels causes increases to the refractive indices and birefringence.
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