Many civilizations also were masters at building huge monuments from stone. From ancient Egyptians, Aztec’s, Easter islanders and Mayans, all these civilizations built monuments from heavy stone. Each civilization had extensive man power to cut and shift huge rocks and make spectacular monuments.
Petrified volcanic rocks showing toungue and grove for timber o to be able to shift.Right hand side image is of Granite rocks with perfect fits
But what impresses most the ancient Incas is their ability to set massive rocks to join together with near perfect joints. To view rocks over 5meters tall and 2-3 meters thick and wide with free-form shapes with perfect fits is. Incredible. The Incas use free-form rocks with mortar in between to make houses or forts. As they were in earthquake prone areas ,they built their structures on lean of 8-13 % lean to allow for earthquakes,door ways and windows also had internal leans and many structures had huge rocks with small rocks placed in-between even today you can touch rocks that are loose in a wall. This was designed to allow movement in an earthquake so that the wall would not collapse When the Spanish arrived,they built solid structures and churches and many of these have fallen down in earthquakes an have need restoration As Peru is in the Andes and this was formed by tectonic plates and the country still has active volcanoes Ancient eruptions spread thick volcanic dust over the country and sea and some of this formed as petrified volcanic rock and is very porous and light in weight compared to granite This volcanic rock and sandstone rock which has mineral purifies that give sandstone dark red to black colors. These rocks were used in many monuments but he important places for temples were add with high grade granite and yes the joins are perfect that a credit card cannot be inserted but. Granite rocks were not cut freeform shape but perfect square shapes The huge rocks seen at many sites are volcanic or sandstone and not granite.
Many researches have concluded that these rocks are granite but they are not a s dense as as heavy as granite
sandstone or volcanic rock is far easier to work and shape But that still doesn’t take away the awe on how they made these rocks Fit so perfect with reform shapes It is still a mystery today how they did this
Volcanic rock displaying hand chips to smooth rock. Sand placed in middle to make stable. Incredible rock formations.using nature as base thye built on top
There are many theories The Incas were good mathematicians and engineers,one only has to view their accomplishments to agree with this They were also master cravat an at pottery and some researches theorise that the Incas made clay moulds so that workers can make perfect fit One museum in Lima has over 45,000 Inca portray items and workmanship is excellent. Also the Incas used dyes and powders s had materials at hand to gauge the extreme fines of their work Incas Also used gravel to act like sandpaper and placed rocks on top of each other and this process made the rocks smooth an d in line But still doesn’t explain how to join free form rocks some up to 100 tones together My theory QUIPIS The Incas could have used apparatus called Quipus to make copy of these shapes!
Quipis is not a writing system but was an information transfer system.
A quipis is essentially a a group of strings tied together .the strings are dyed in different colours and knotted at precise points.
The type of wool used,lama , colour of dye used and types knots all told information
Incas could have used the quipu system to make mirror image copy of shapes they required
The string and measurements could have been the method used and this would be like mirror image but would still take lot skill and time to carve. But Incas did have the skill and the time to complete this process exact
Incas who were knowledgeable at quipis were called Quipucamayocs. Incas had bronze and granite rocks to chip away slowly at volcanic rocks or sandstone but,did not make free-form shapes with granite as this rock is to hard Many people viewing the Inca rocks would think the rocks were all granite which is a dense heavy rock Petrified Volcanic rock is also different from volcanic rock But sandstone which looks like granite can be scratched with your finger nails as this rock is so soft.
Granite rocks or Metamorphic rocks have density of 2700 kg /m3
sandstone rocks only have density of 2000 kg/m3
On Modulus of Rigidity
Granite is 24 Gpa
Sandstone is 0.04 Gpa
On compression tests
Granite can go to 250 MPa
Sandstone can go to 170 Mpa
Loose rock set to withstand earthquakes and they have for centuries. Incas would tip rocks over by this method Tongue and grove method used to stabilize rocks.
Bronze or granite rocks would easily chip away make a smooth surface on these rocks inca s also had bright dyes and they could have easily used lama or alpaca wool as string covered in bright. Dye and used this to mark on the rock face that needed smoothing This is similar to what builders use today to mark straight line The blob would have to be made in two exact pieces ,replicating each other so the shape required could be transferred at both ends of the rock. Many rocks Re 2-3meters thick and internal areas ave to be exact as the front as once the rock was paced in positing it would have required immense effort to take out and re do. so I presume inspectors would have approved each rock town extreme high standard before placement. Also each rock had a tongue n grove system so in case of an earthquake the grove would strength the structure. Many examples of these rocks are in unfinished Inca structures The Incas could easily tell which rock was easy to shape.
Unfortunately the Spanish destroyed most quipis in 1530 but a s they would have been only wood and lamb articles only few quipis still remain but I did not see any to prove my theory
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