Sphene is also known as Titanite. Its species is titanite and its color ranges from yellow to brown, green, or reddish.
Sphene’s chemical composition is CaTiSiO5, calcium titanium silicate crystal. System is monoclinic, with platy hardness of 5-5.5. Its specific gravity is 3.52-3.54 and its refractive index is 1.843-2.110. Birefringence is +0.100 to +0.192. Color of streak is white, and its absorption spectrum is 586, 582. Its fluorescence is none.
Deposits of sphene are found in Austria, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Italy, Mexico, Myanmar, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, and the United States. Crystals of sphene are normally small, therefore gems are typically less than 2 carats in size. Sphene color can be changed to red or orange by heat enhancement.