Vivianite Gemstone: Properties, Meanings, Value & More

vivianite gemstoneVivianite is a soft gemstone known for its ability to change to new, saturated blue to green colors from light exposure and shift in vibrant hues at different angles via pleochroism. It’s popular among collectors and can form around organic material like fossils or shells.

Is vivianite a rare mineral? Yes. The mineral itself is rare, and faceted vivianite gemstones are even rarer.

Is vivianite fragile? Absolutely. Its fragile nature is largely why faceted specimens are so rare. You also won’t see much if any vivianite jewelry available. However, raw vivianite crystals are attractive uncut, with large sizes and vivid coloring perfect for decor or healing.

Today, we’ll go over all of vivianite’s characteristics, colors, history, benefits, and more!

vivianite gemstone

About Vivianite Stone

Vivianite is a semi-precious gemstone used historically as a pigment. It has a few monikers, some of which are related to its pigment uses:

  • Blue ochre

  • Native Prussian blue

  • Blue iron earth

  • Earthy phosphate of iron

  • Phosphate of iron

  • Angelardite / Anglarite / Anglarite

  • Glaucosiderite

  • Mullicite

Besides paint pigment, what is vivianite used for? Scientists have created synthetic vivianite for agricultural and environmental research. Synthetic vivianites haven’t been manufactured for sale as commercial gems, though.

As a zodiac stone, vivianite is recommended for Capricorns.

Vivianite Specifications & Characteristics

Vivianite is a hydrated iron phosphate mineral with the formula Fe3(PO4)2 · 8H2O. The iron may be substituted by small amounts of magnesium, manganese, or calcium.

Once formed, vivianite crystals are equant, prismatic, or tabular. It can also form in radial or bladed groups of crystal clusters, crusts, or earthy masses.

Does vivianite change color? Yes, but not in the same way as color-changing gems like alexandrite. Vivianite can display multiple colors at different angles through pleochroism, but it will also permanently change colors after exposure to light due to internal oxidation.

The mineral’s streak will also change from colorless initially to dark blue over time, an identifying characteristic not seen in many other minerals.

Vivianite’s tenacity is flexible, meaning it can bend without breaking, and sectile, meaning you can cut it into thin slices with a knife.

Here are all of vivianite’s properties:

  • Mohs hardness: 1.5-2

  • Color: Colorless when fresh; Gradually alters to shades of light blue and/or green, followed by dark green or greenish-blue, then indigo-blue, then bluish-black or black

  • Crystal structure: Monoclinic

  • Luster: Vitreous (glassy), pearly on cleavage; Can be dull or earthy

  • Transparency: Transparent to opaque

  • Refractive index: 1.569-1.675; Bolivian specimens - 1.585, 1.603, and 1.639

  • Density: 2.64-2.68; Bolivian specimens - 2.64

  • Cleavage: Perfect, 1-direction on [010]

  • Fracture: Fibrous

  • Streak: Colorless/white to bluish-white, changes to dark blue or brown over time

  • Luminescence: None

  • Pleochroism: Present & intense - blue/deep blue/indigo-blue to pale yellow-green/pale blue-green/yellow-green to pale yellow-green/olive-yellow

  • Birefringence: 0.040-0.059

  • Dispersion: Weak

vivianite gemstone cabochons

Vivianite Meaning & History

Vivianite crystals symbolize compassion, renewed hope, and emotional strength.

The stone’s ability to darken in color over time has led to some interpretations of vivianite’s metaphysical properties. British geologist and mineral enthusiast Alfredo Petrov recalled his experience with a couple at the Tucson Gem Shows in 2003 and 2004.

The couple bought Bolivian vivianites from Petrov in 2003, then returned for more in 2004. The couple was glad their original vivianites turned black, as they believed the mineral darkened as it absorbed more and more evil energies. But they also said they needed fresh vivianite crystals to continue benefiting from the mineral’s purported negativity-dispelling powers.


German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner named Vivianite in 1817 shortly before his passing. Sources differ on who Werner was honoring with the name, claiming it was either English mineralogist John Henry (J.H.) Vivian or Welsh-Cornish politician and mineralogist Jeffrey G. (J.G.) Vivian.

Regardless, the Vivian who discovered it found it in the Wheal Kine (or Wheal Kind) mine in Cornwall, England. The earliest written record of the mineral before this was from G.C. Springsfeld in 1751.

However, vivianite pigment has been used in oil paint since the Roman era of 625 BC to 476 AD.

Although few painters used it, one notable example is the gray-blue parts of the tablecloth (or carpet) in the foreground of Johannes Vermeer’s 1656 painting The Procuress. (You may know Vermeer better for his 1665 painting Girl With a Pearl Earring.) The discovery of vivianite in the pigment was done through scientific analysis conducted in 2001.

Compared to azurite, another mineral used for blue pigments historically, vivianite paint would become a more vivid blue over time, while azurite would alter into malachite to look more greenish.

vivianite healing crystalImage credit: Jake Slagle, Flickr

Vivianite Healing Properties

Vivianite can be used as a healing stone. Like all blue gemstones, blue vivianites increase wisdom, loyalty, and freedom. They’re also great throat and third eye chakra stones, promoting spiritual awareness and healthy communication.

Green vivianites join other green gemstones in bringing abundance, good luck, and personal growth.

Physically, what are the benefits of vivianite?

Physical Healing

Physically, vivianite crystal benefits are said to include treating or helping with:

  • Recovery from illness

  • Iron absorption

  • Dementia and memory loss

  • Balance

  • Skin diseases

Emotional Healing

Emotionally, vivianite is said to help dispel feelings of anxiety or discomfort in your own skin. It may increase feelings of fulfillment, confidence, and optimism.

green vivianite gemstone raw crystal

Vivianite Gemstone Properties

How much is vivianite worth? It depends on the specimen. Vivianite is graded on standard properties like color, cut, clarity, and carat weight. However, its rarity means any vivianite for sale will hold some value.


Though fresh vivianite is colorless and often transparent, it quickly darkens to shades of blue or green. Bright transparent green or blue vivianite that hasn’t oxidized as much is more valuable than fully oxidized black specimens. Strong pleochroism is also valuable.


Finding faceted vivianite is difficult. The mineral’s Mohs hardness is incredibly low — between talc and gypsum. This softness combined with perfect cleavage and sectile tenacity makes any type of cutting or polishing difficult, so a rare faceted vivianite could command a high price. Attractive rough (uncut) vivianite specimens are more common.

Clarity & Transparency

Clarity describes how many visible inclusions are in a gemstone, which can affect its transparency. The most valuable vivianite specimens have little to no visible inclusions and high transparency. Darker colors from oxidation can also lower the transparency, decreasing the value.

Carat Weight & Size

Vivianite specimens can be quite large, especially those from Bolivia. Unfortunately, the size doesn’t make cutting them any easier, so cut vivianites in large sizes aren’t common. The largest vivianite crystals are over 1 meter (~3.3 feet) long and come from Cameroon.

black vivianite gemston rough fossilized specimen

Vivianite Formation & Sources

Vivianite forms in a few different environments as a secondary mineral, meaning it forms when other minerals (like pyrite and marcasite) are altered through weathering or metamorphism.

Common environments to find vivianite include:

  • Oxidation zone of metal ore deposits

  • Phosphate mineral-bearing granite pegmatites

  • Clays

  • Alluvial deposits

  • Hydrothermal veins

In alluvial deposits, vivianite is often found replacing organic matter to form around or inside of material like decaying wood (like the image above) and even decaying bodies. In fact, human remains buried in bogs (or anywhere that’s waterlogged with lots of iron and no oxygen) have been found with vivianite on the bones, teeth, and skin.

The best environment for high-quality, gemmy vivianite crystals is hydrothermal veins.

Mining Locations

Where is vivianite found? Despite its rarity, vivianite has a number of sources. The best sources for gem-quality vivianite are:

  • Bolivia

  • Cameroon

  • USA (Idaho, Virginia, Utah)

  • Additional sources of significance are:

  • Australia

  • Canada

  • England

  • France

  • Germany

  • Japan

  • Kosovo

  • Mexico

  • New Zealand

  • Russia

  • Spain

  • USA (California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Maryland, New Jersey, South Dakota)

Now, how much does vivianite cost?

vivianite gemstone cabochons

Vivianite Price & Value

Here at Gem Rock Auctions, you can find dark blackish-blue vivianite cabochons for $18 to $30 each.

Raw vivianite crystal prices depend on the specimen and seller. You can find small, dark green crystals for as low as $5 and huge 3- to 10-pound specimens for upwards of $2,500.

Many deep green, transparent to translucent vivianite crystals measuring 4-10 inches are around $40 to $100 each.

Vivianite Care and Maintenance

Before we discuss gemstone care, is vivianite toxic? No, vivianite isn’t toxic, but it’s best to avoid inhaling powdered vivianite or drinking any vivianite elixirs.

How do you care for vivianite? To preserve your vivianite’s color, store it in a dark place away from any light, like an opaque, fabric-lined box (not glass) or pouch.

Besides light, keep vivianite away from:

  • Acids (dissolves the mineral)

  • Hydrogen peroxide (darkens the mineral’s color)

Wash your hands after touching any vivianite specimens.

vivianite crystal twinned v shapeImage credit: Rob Lavinsky, – CC-BY-SA-3.0

Watch Negativity Vanish with Vivianite!

Though vivianite is rare and not suited for jewelry, it’s still a powerful healing stone and a beautiful piece for any collection. The crystal’s purported ability to soak up negative energies is perfect for keeping the positive vibes flowing!

Shop for vivianite and other gemstones today!

Was this article helpful?

Search the Gemstone Encyclopedia

A-Z Of Gemstones

A-Z Of Gemstones

A-Z Of Gemstones
378 articles
Additional Gemstone Information

Additional Gemstone Information

Additional Gemstone Information
60 articles
Did You Know?

Did You Know?

Did You Know?
78 articles
Drawing Design Awards

Drawing Design Awards

Drawing Design Awards
2 articles
Gem Rock Auctions Verified Sellers

Gem Rock Auctions Verified Sellers

Gem Rock Auctions Verified Sellers
3 articles
Holistic Gemstone Information

Holistic Gemstone Information

Holistic Gemstone Information
34 articles
How To's

How To's

How To's is where you will find helpful articles from gem Rock Auctions on how to cut gemstones, select gemstones and buy gemstones.
9 articles


News and events on Gem Rock Auctions
48 articles
Technical Information on Gemstones

Technical Information on Gemstones

Technical Information on Gemstones
30 articles