South America boasts a long history of gemstone production and arguably produces some of the finest gem specimens in the world. Out of the South American gem-producing areas Brazil is by far the most prolific source of world-class gemstones. There are a huge variety of gem types found in the country including aquamarine, amethyst, citrine, diamond, emerald, quartz, ruby, sapphire, topaz, and many more. While Brazil is well known for its incredible range of gorgeous gems Columbia is the source of perhaps the finest emeralds in the world. Other countries in South America also help expand the range of stones available from this one continent with Bolivia, Chile, Guyana, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela all providing a source of quality gemstones. See the countries section below for a detailed list of gemstones produced by each country or learn the different gemstone localities .
● Amethyst: South America became an important source of amethysts in the 19th century when large deposits of the popular purple stone were found in Brazil. Amethyst discoveries were limited up until the find in Brazil that lead to South America being the largest producer of amethysts in the world.
● Citrine: Many South American countries are a source of citrine including Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay but it is Brazil that produces some of the finest citrine in the world. Citrine is a member of the quartz family and Brazilian citrine is renowned for its warm tones that range from yellow to orange.
● Aquamarine: 90% of aquamarine is mined in Brazil, making South America the premier source for this stunning pale blue gemstone. Aquamarine is named after the Latin words for water and sea, and the range of tones from pale to vivid blue makes it easy to see why. Aquamarine is part of the Beryl family and the birthstone for March.
● Emerald: Columbia’s emeralds are world renowned for their size, color, and quality. Emeralds have a long history in Columbia with the vibrant green stones being highly valued by Columbians for many years before the rest of the world discovered the country as a source of high-quality stones. In fact it was the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors that introduced the rest of the world to Columbian emeralds.
● Lapis Lazuli: Lapis lazuli has been used throughout history for ceremonial activities, fine jewelry, and art. Lapis lazuli is found throughout the world but only in a few locations in South America. A large deposit, which was mined by ancient civilization for thousands of years, was mapped high in the Andes Mountains in Chile in 1851. This deposit of lapis lazuli, known as Flor de los Andes, is now the only commercially mined source of lapis lazuli in Chile.
● Topaz: Brazil is the largest source of imperial topaz in the world, with only small deposits found elsewhere in Russia. The mine, located in the Minas Gerais region, produces Imperial Topaz ranging from purple to yellow, with pink, salmon, and orange stones also available. Some colors of imperial topaz, which can also be known as precious topaz, are extremely rare, with pink being the least commonly found.
● Rose Quartz
● Smoky Quartz
● Lapis lazuli
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